Oxygen is essential to contemporary life, providing the major electron sink underlying cellular energy metabolism. In addition to providing energy, largely involving redox reactions within mitochondria, oxidative metabolism produces reactive byproducts that are damaging to cellular components. Eukaryotic organisms have evolved multiple physiological mechanisms and signaling pathwaysto deal with fluctuating levels of oxygen and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and many of these are used in animals to regulate developmental processes. Here we review recent findings showing how mitochondria, ROS and hypoxia signaling contribute to the regulation of early axial patterning in embryos, to nervous system development, and to the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation during development and regeneration.
Jason Hall has found a number of viable routes for a fully gravitational surface aqueduct to the Murray Darling Basin from Northern Queensland.
Previously, we showed a gravitational route from the upper Burdekin River, crossing the Great Dividing Range at Lake Buchanan or Lake Galilee, and through to Blackall. Jason has found a number of potential routes from Blackall down the Bulloo Valley to St George in the MDB in Queensland, or Bourke in the MDB in NSW.
This is the first publication of a fully gravitational surface route for watering the entire inland of Queensland and New South Wales with an inland river of flood waters.
While a number of so-called ‘drought-breaking’ schemes have been touted recently including raising dam walls, the following problems with these approaches are not spoken or not appreciated.
- Limitations of local dams. A single dam can provide limited storage. In drought, it is depleted rapidly by demand, and in flood most goes over the spillway. Drought-busting requires water to be conveyed long distances from high rainfall to low rainfall areas, to smooth out rainfall variations due to seasons or random variation in rainfall.
- Large dams at low altitudes. Lower catchment dams generally require irrigation water pipelines and pumping and do not make use of the free gravitational force for moving water around. Viable irrigation schemes require water to be delivered at the lowest cost possible that gravitational channels can provide.
- Tunnels and pipelines. A long surface aqueduct may include in-line water reservoirs that both contribute to the water supply en route and enable local irrigation schemes all along the route.
The routes marked on the image are potential gravitational aqueduct with different start and end points. Together they would compromise a new ‘inland river’ – I propose calling it the Bradfield River – that would open vast areas of the outback to new irrigation schemes, provide reliable water to townships, safe water to mines of the Galilee Basin, and supplement the dwindling supply of water to the Murray Darling Basin.
As the co-owner of Deepfeet Massage Therapy, our massage clinics in Emerald and Kingaroy, Queensland, Australia we are always open to investors, excellent massage therapists looking for employment and customers in need. Clinics are located in major retail centers and staffed with qualified massage therapists. HICAPS health fund rebates are available from therapists with massage qualifications, and all therapists are experienced in massage therapy.
Novel prize winner James Watson, discoverer of the DNA double helix, in Oxidants, antioxidants and the current incurability of metastatic cancers proposed commonly consumed free-radical-destroying antioxidative nutritional supplements may have caused more cancers than they have prevented. This view is supported by metastudies e.g. analyzing 68 randomized trials with 232,606 participants (385 publications) and reviews showing the unfulfilled promises of antioxidant agents.
His hypothesis was that much of late-stage cancer’s untreatability may arise from its possession of too many antioxidants, and the time has come to seriously ask whether antioxidant use much more likely causes than prevents cancer. In 2014 James Watson came up with a radical theory for diabetes, dementia, heart disease and cancer where he wrote:
The fundamental cause, I suggest, is a lack of biological oxidants, not an excess.Lancet
This also explains why metformin—the most commonly used drug to treat type 2 diabetes and physical exercise seems to be beneficial for several of the same diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, and cardiovascular disease.
Watson believes that rather than being wholly bad, oxidizing molecules, such as hydrogen peroxide, are crucial for the body’s health. In particular, he points out that hydrogen peroxide goes to work in a cellular organ called the endoplasmic reticulum, where it ensures proteins are stable. If the REDOX level is disturbed, and levels of oxidants are too low, he suggests, the proteins become misshapen and cause the inflammation that damages the pancreas. And a raft of other diseases.
All in all, this opens the door to manipulating levels of reactive oxidizing molecules (ROS) for treating a host of chronic diseases that have thus far eluded medical science. Different ROS levels produce different outcomes with deleterious or beneficial effects. While there is still considerable controversy as to whether ROS modulation by either antioxidant supplementation or inhibition is clinically beneficial or detrimental for cancer treatment, supplementation with REDOX signaling molecules using products such as ASEA with an aim to restore optimal levels of ROS may potentially be a promising adjunctive strategy in anticancer therapies.
What we look for in sustainable health and the environment are innovations that lie within the normal tolerances of the organism and its environment. This often requires restoring a set of conditions that are natural. And while our strategies cannot be considered absolute, they can be safely and effectively applied.
Helping a partner launch an early stage cellular health technology into the Australasian markets, working with a biotech company from the U.S. This is being hailed as one of the most significant health, anti-aging and athletic breakthroughs in our lifetime. Contact me if you have or know of someone with health issues or are open to looking at income options.
We all benefit from innovations in sustainable health and the environment. Maintaining the health and the ecological conditions in which species and humans can survive is the foundation for ensuring that every creature lives on despite an ecosystem where thousands cease to exist annually.
Developing the design and locations of a New Bradfield Scheme, an Australian large-scale water diversion scheme designed to irrigate and drought-proof much of the western Queensland and Northern NSW.
My contributions to research have been recognized by the US Immigration Service as an Outstanding Researcher due to my peer-reviewed publications in biodiversity, human health and artificial intelligence (ResearchGate, Scholar, LinkedIn). I myself have a Ph.D. in Ecosystem Dynamics. I have worked with the World Health Organisation, School of Tropical Medicine UNSW, Australian Parks and Wildlife, Land and Natural Resources services, as well as the San Diego Supercomputer Center at the University of California San Diego.
David is an Adjunct Researcher with the Centre for Intelligent Systems (CQU) which conducts outcome driven and theoretical research into the application of complex intelligent systems to such areas as environmental management of fire, road safety, and pavement maintenance.
Reduction oxidation (REDOX) reactions are central to life and when altered, they can promote disease progression. It is now clear that some ROS, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), can act as messengers both in the extracellular environment and within cells. Mitochondria, the main cell power source, seems to be an important redox signaling node, central to metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, the citric acid cycle, fatty acid oxidation, the urea cycle and the biosynthesis of iron-sulfur centers. Furthermore, mitochondria have key roles in cell death, calcium homeostasis, and oxygen sensing, proliferation, and angiogenesis – the growth of new blood vessels. Consequently, mitochondria are at the core of many biological processes, and redox signals to and from this organelle help to integrate mitochondrial function with the health of the cell and the organism.
Redox imbalance is expressed in one of two ways: a predominance of oxidative stress-related symptoms and signs (similar to rusting but in a biological sense), or a predominance of inflammatory (reactive) signs and symptoms. Health can be achieved by addressing imbalances in these areas and then moving the REDOX needle back to the balance point.
Our genetic blueprints have created a tendency to lean one direction or the other. We can choose to provide health support by addressing our REDOX potential. This is done primarily through lifestyle adjustments and also by supplementing with REDOX signaling molecules. An effective response to health challenges moves the balance back to the middle. For example, the management of cancer would involve reducing inflammation, the reactive response, rather than oxidative stress.